Technology

Coupling rings
Photo encyclopaedia

Coupling rings

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A coupling ring is used to establish a connection between two lenses. In front of the actual lens, a second lens is mounted in the inverted position. Both lenses are connected via their filter threads: The first lens is mounted in the normal position on the bayonet of the camera. The coupling ring is then […]

AF – Autofocus
Technology

AF – Autofocus

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Since the 1970’s, there have been attempts to develop cameras with autofocus capability. Besides camera shake, using the wrong focus is a main cause of a photo appearing blurry. Since about 1985, automatic SLR cameras have played an important role in the world of photography. Currently, the speed and precision of the autofocus is so […]

MF – Manual Focus
Technology

MF – Manual Focus

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Ambitious hobby photographers can’t but help themselves to try their hand at adjusting the sharpness of the photo themselves. Technical utilities can be used to assist in this endeavour. When using a DSLR camera with a live view, a central portion of an image can be enlarged and later perfectly focused after some manual adjustments. […]

Focusing
Technology

Focusing

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The exact distance setting used to photograph an object is known as focusing. The object should be focused by adjusting the camera as well as the lens. Often, people don’t really pay attention to using the right focus when photographing, but by keeping the amount of focus in mind when taking pictures, you can widen […]

Camera Flash
Technology

Camera Flash

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In photography, any method of producing better lighting of the object you’re photographing by using an instant and short burst of light is known as a flash. Using a flash makes it possible to take pictures with sharp quality even in poor lighting conditions. Most cameras come with an integrated flash or a port capable […]

Lenses
Technology

Lenses

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A lens acts as an optical system that generates an image of an object. The simplest form of a lens is made up of a collecting lens, which gathers together rays of light and projects them onto an image plane. Modern camera lenses, however, are made up of multiple lenses and mirrors. Some camera lenses […]

Wide-angle Lenses
Technology

Wide-angle Lenses

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All lenses with a focal length less than 50 millimetres are classified as wide-angle lenses. If a lens has a focal length of 20mm or less, it’s classified as an ultra-wide-angle lens. The most extreme form of a wide-angle lens is the fisheye lens. These lenses have a focal length of less than 16mm and […]

Telephoto Lenses
Technology

Telephoto Lenses

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“Tele” comes from Greek and has the meaning of “far.” Telephoto lenses enable the photographer to photograph objects “up-close” from a far distance. A telephoto lens essentially functions the same way a telescope does. In comparison with normal lenses, telephoto lenses have a higher focal length. A lens is considered to be a telephoto lens […]

Macro Lenses
Technology

Macro Lenses

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Using a macro lens makes it possible to achieve a high image ratio. The reproduction ratio describes the relationship between the actual size of an object with the depicted size on the photo sensor. With a ratio of 1:2, for instance, the photographed object is twice as large as it is depicted on the sensor. […]

Focal Length
Technology

Focal Length

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The focal length describes the distance between the lens and the focus. A focal length is given in millimetres. The larger the focal length is, the larger the object will appear in the photo at the same distance. It is also an expression of the image magnification at a given distance. The focal length directly […]

Aperture
Technology

Aperture

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The aperture regulates the amount of light that hits the sensor. If the aperture is fully open, a lot of light is allowed through. The more closed the aperture is, the less light is allowed through to hit the sensor. The aperture is mostly a mechanical system that consists of circularly arranged blades which slide […]

Objective Lenses
Technology

Objective Lenses

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Objective lenses (from now on referred to as just lenses) are translucent objects that focus light beams through refraction. The first theories of optical magnification by using curved lenses came about a thousand years ago. These theories were further developed in the 12th century. At this time, the reading stone was created, which was placed […]

HDR
Technology

HDR

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An HDR (High Dynamic Range) image is a digital image, which displays large differences in brightness with high detail. These HDR images are capable of displaying a wider range of contrast than is possible with normal images (so-called low dynamic range images). The 256 brightness levels commonly used are usually not sufficient enough to be […]

ISO
Technology

ISO

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ISO (short for International Organization for Standardization) is an international standard-setting organization. It develops international standards for many aspects of daily life. Prior to the establishment of the ISO, national abbreviations such as DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung / German Institute for Standardization) or ASA (American Standards Association) were used. In photography, ISO-values stand for […]

Automatic Exposure
Technology

Automatic Exposure

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Unlike analogue cameras, modern SLR cameras have an automatic exposure. This automatic exposure control works by interlinking the aperture and shutter, which both significantly influence light intensity as well as exposure time. Both of these elements produce the exposure of a photo. In other words, the exposure is the product of light intensity and exposure […]