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Nikon is a Japanese manufacturer of cameras, lenses, and other precision optical instruments. With its headquarters in Tokyo, this company is one of the leaders in camera manufacturing worldwide. Since 1961, Nikon has been represented in the European markets as Nikon AG Switzerland in Zurich. Nikon produces SLR, system, and Coolpix compact cameras as well as lenses and flash units.

Since 1959, Nikon has manufactured SLR cameras and has been producing digital models since 1994. Nikon ushered in the era of affordable digital SLR cameras with the introduction of the Nikon D70 in 2004. The Nikon D-series includes SLR cameras with image sensors in 24 x 16 mm size (which Nikon calls “DX-format”) as well as image sensors in 36 x 24 mm size (which they call “FX-format”). The FX-format image sensor has the same size as that used in analogue 35mm film and was first built in the Nikon D3 in 2007. The analogue SLR camera model range includes the F-series and F-series with autofocus.

Nikon model numbers do not necessarily have anything to do with the quality of the camera. Current professional models from the company include the Nikon D300S and the Nikon D810. For advanced photographers Nikon offers the models D7200, D750, and D610 amongst others. The Nikon D5500 and Nikon D3300 are a couple of camera models that are more suitable for beginners. Many models come with Wi-Fi compatibility and can record full HD movies. Some of their models come with displays that the user can turn as well as tilt.

Depending on the size of the image sensor (and also the camera model), various lenses with corresponding lens bayonets can be used. Nikon D-series cameras utilize the Nikon F-bayonet, which has been on the market since 1959 and has undergone some developments since then.

Since 2011, Nikon has been producing mirror-less digital cameras with interchangeable lenses (so-called system cameras) including the Nikon 1. A new sensor as well as bayonet was developed for this model. In comparison with SLR cameras, they’re compacter since they don’t have optical viewfinder components and the focal length is shorter due to the smaller sensor format. There are currently four model lines of the Nikon 1 available. The S-series is the most compact of the four. Cameras from both the S and J-series have no electronic viewfinder and have a built-in flash. Cameras in the V-series come with an electronic viewfinder and a hot shoe. AW-series cameras are waterproof, shockproof, and can operate normally in sub-freezing temperatures down to -10 °C. These characteristics make the AW-series perfect for photographing outdoors and underwater.