Different kinds of lenses for different uses

What You Should Keep in Mind When Purchasing a New Lens

Every camera manufacturer offers a wide selection of different lenses and on top of this wide selection there are also many different lenses offered by aftermarket manufacturers. This can make it quite difficult for you to make a well-informed and smart decision when purchasing your lens.

We’ll give you some tips and info about what you should pay attention to when buying a new lens for your camera.

Which focal length should my lens have?

The first decision you have to make is if you want a zoom lens or a fixed focal length lens. Zoom lenses come with the advantage of being able to adjust the focal length. This makes the lens much more versatile. Also, you won’t have to change out lenses as often when on the go, which can save you a lot of time and effort.

Just as the name entails, you cannot change the focal length on fixed focal length lenses. This means that when you want to photograph an object larger or smaller, you will have to change your own position. The advantage of using this kind of lens is that they are optimised for their specific focal length. You will be able to achieve higher quality results than when photographing with a zoom lens of similar quality. Furthermore, fixed focal length lenses are usually less expensive than their zoom lens counterparts. Fixed focal length lenses are also lighter and handier than the more versatile zoom lens.

Once you’ve decided what kind of lens you would like to use, it’s time to think about the appropriate focal length. This heavily depends on what you will be using your lens for.

A little more info about focal lengths:

Focal lengths are given in millimetres. A focal length of 50mm is approximately comparable to the viewing angle of the human eye; thus, a lens with this focal length is called a “normal lens.” Focal lengths less than 50mm are referred to as wide-angle. With a lower focal length comes a higher angular size that can be depicted in the photo. Wide-angle lenses are especially well suited for landscape and travel photography. Of course there are wide-angle lenses available in a range of focal lengths; an ultra wide-angle lens, for example, has a focal length of 20mm or less.

Lenses with a focal length over 70mm are called telephoto lenses. A telephoto lens makes it possible to photograph objects from a large distance. Since the lens is capable of photographing objects from a larger distance, “less motif” is capable of fitting in the photo. Medium telephoto lenses have a focal length of 135 – 300mm and super telephoto lenses have a focal length of 300mm or more.

 

Lenses suitable for beginners usually have a focal length of 18 – 55mm and they are often included when purchasing a new SLR camera. These lenses are either in the wide-angle or normal category.

For those of you who travel often and have to pay attention to how heavy the lens is, it’s recommended to choose a lens that covers a wide focal length range. These are comparatively larger and heavier, but make it no longer necessary to take an interchangeable lens with you. For beginners, lenses with a focal length of 18 – 200mm are recommended. This allows you to cover the focal lengths provided by a wide-angle, normal, and telephoto lens with just one lens.

Professionals would never be able to give up their interchangeable lenses. When compiling your own collection of lenses, it’s recommended to have a mix of fixed focal length and zoom lenses. For the most commonly used focal lengths, it would be worthwhile to use a fixed focal length lens since these are superior in quality when compared to their zoom lens counterparts. A pro’s equipment bag is then supplemented by a high quality wide-angle lens as well as a high quality telephoto lens.

Lenses with various apertures

Lens speed

The second important thing to consider when purchasing a new lens is the lens speed. The lens speed is the maximum aperture diameter (the minimum f-number) of a lens. The wider the aperture opens, the more light hits the sensor, and thus the higher light intensity the lens is capable of. Lens speed is given as an f-number. F-numbers are fractions; the smaller the denominator, the larger the aperture value. An aperture value of f/1.4 is noticeably larger and has a higher light intensity than f/8.

Zoom lenses usually have a lower lens speed than fixed focal length lenses. A larger focal length range of a lens usually means a lower lens speed. Therefore, when buying a new lens, it’s necessary to pay attention to the lens speed and consider your own personal requirements.

Lens mount on a camera

Lens mounts – does the lens fit my camera?

The wide range of lenses available on the market is mainly limited by the fact that the lens has to fit your specific camera model. Many camera manufacturers have slightly altered the popular bayonet mount format so that only lenses manufactured by the same company will fit the camera. Aftermarket lens manufacturers usually keep this in mind and offer lenses that are compatible with several kinds of bayonet mounts. The websites of aftermarket lens manufacturers usually tell you which lens is compatible with which camera models.

Price – what is all of this going to cost me?

The price of a new lens starts at about £140 for entry-level models and goes up to the thousands as well as tens of thousands for professional models. Thus, you have to find a realistic compromise between personal requirements, what you will use the lens for, and the price.

Besides the focal length and lens speed, there are some other features and extras that have an influence on the price of the lens. An example is the particularly faster autofocus motor, a so-called ultrasonic motor. Even though such a feature is probably not the most important thing for beginning photographers to consider when purchasing a new lens, this can be the key to success for professional sports and animal photographers. However, this higher quality performance comes at a high price. There are also specially-formed lenses that help reduce the appearance of image aberrations. These so-called aspheric lenses, however, are usually only found in higher-priced camera lenses.

The most important things to consider when purchasing a new lens are what you want to photograph with this lens as well as your expectations of quality. You can get expert advice about the newest models at your local store or you can search online for current test reports and reviews containing practical recommendations for purchasing a new lens. Nevertheless, it’s still important to inform yourself about specific properties of camera lenses and to consider your own needs.

The Pinhole Camera

The simplest and most likely oldest optical device used to generate an image of an object is the pinhole camera. The famous Greek philosopher and naturalist Aristotle first described the construction and operation of a “dark chamber” over 2000 years ago. In this dark chamber, a small opening was made for light to pass through (in Latin: a camera obscura). With this, Aristotle unknowingly discovered the basic principle of photography.

When light enters a small hole into an opaque hollow container, an upside-down image is generated on the back surface. When the surface on which the image appears is made of transparent material, the image can be viewed from outside of the container.

The sharpness and brightness of an image produced by a pinhole camera is solely determined by the diameter of the hole allowing light to pass through. Exposure times range anywhere from five seconds to several hours.

Compared to cameras capable of focusing, the luminosity of pinhole cameras is 10 to 500 times weaker and the image is noticeably fuzzier. The image produced can be captured with the help of light-sensitive material(s) or an image sensor.

Starting at the end of the 13th century, astronomers began using the camera obscura for observing solar eclipses and other astronomic phenomena. This helped them observe the eclipse without damaging their eyes by looking directly into the bright sunlight. Walk-in camera obscuras were built for such observations and can still be found in some places today.

Pinholes are also used in the fields of X-ray and gamma radiation to produce corresponding images since no traditional lenses can be used for this purpose. Complex or large-sized versions are equipped with converging lenses.

Pinhole cameras made with wooden or plastic housings can be purchased starting at around 30 Euros while simpler models made of cardboard are even cheaper. Because the simple principle of a pinhole camera is easy to craft with simple materials, there are numerous tutorials and craft kits available for purchase on the Internet that will help you create your very own camera obscura.

Even digital cameras with interchangeable lenses or SLR cameras can be used as a pinhole camera. For this purpose, some manufacturers (such as Nikon) offer special lenses.

Instant Cameras

A camera that produces a developed photo directly after snapping the picture is called an instant camera.

In classic analogue instant cameras, a stack of paper with a light-sensitive surface is used instead of normal film. This paper contains the chemicals necessary for the development of the photo. When taking the photo out of the camera, the picture is in the middle of being developed. This kind of film uses diffusion transfer to move the dyes from the negative to the positive via a reagent.

When using normal negative film, several prints of the same image can be made. When photographing with an instant camera, however, duplication of the prints is only possible using the so-called photo-to-photo process.

The first instant camera (as we know it today) was developed by the American physicist Edwin Herbert Land in 1947 and his company Polaroid. The early models used black and white film in various sizes. This so-called 40 series film had to be covered in clear coat directly after development, which took about 15 to 30 seconds, in order to protect the photo. A somewhat smaller format was developed in 1954, namely the 30 series, which made instant cameras smaller and easier to manufacture.

A big weakness of separable film was its enormous degree of sensitivity as well as the time it took for the photo to develop. The temperature, as well as other factors, played a decisive role in the quality of the photo’s development. Stopwatches or tables with the appropriate development times were available to advise the photographer how long they should let their photo develop and get the highest quality photo possible. Black and white film photos that were developed for too long would increase the contrast, while unwanted colour lines would appear in colour film photos.

The first integrated film, the SX-70, was brought to market by Polaroid in 1972. When people talk about instant photography nowadays, most people immediately think about the film format of the 600 series, which was created in 1982 as a successor to SX-70 film. This film gave the photographer a higher degree of flexibility with the exposure and lighting conditions. This film could also be used with lower quality cameras, which was advantageous since they did not always expose the photos correctly. 600 series film was also compatible with SX-70 cameras since the measurements of the two different films were identical.

In the age of digital photography with its sophisticated technology and ever-improving image quality, the instant camera market has remained relatively quiet. However, just as with vinyl records, instant cameras have been attracting the attention of more and more people from younger generations. Nowadays, the function of the instant camera is combined with modern smartphone technology and thus instant cameras are becoming more and more popular amongst the “sharing” community. The newest instant cameras available on the market are outfitted with a digital display and can take photos with the same number of megapixels as digital cameras of comparable quality. Through improved technology, instant cameras are now capable of producing a smudge- and water-resistant photo in less than a minute. Users can also post their photos on social networks like Facebook and Instagram with the camera’s integrated Wi-Fi or Bluetooth capabilities as well as Polaroid social media apps.

Even older analogue Polaroid cameras are being used once again for their artistic touch and to produce a unique photo. Instant cameras are especially popular amongst professional photographers due to the special charm they lend their photos.

One of the latest models being manufactured by Polaroid is the Polaroid Z2300. Even if instant photography remains a niche market for now, it’s the personal and artistic value that keeps Polaroid fans coming back for more.

Compact Cameras

A comparatively low weight and compact size are two of the biggest advantages of compact cameras. Compact cameras are available in a wide range of capabilities and prices from manufacturers such as Canon, Nikon, Panasonic, and Sony. Unlike DSLR and system cameras, compact cameras are equipped with a fixed lens. This camera class also includes the ever-popular mini camera (also known as a bridge or compact system camera), which is popular for taking pictures on holiday and are similar to SLR cameras in both appearance and size.

Compact cameras typically have a smaller range of functions available (e.g. fully automatic function or different scene modes) in comparison to other types of cameras and are outfitted with rather simple components. Compact cameras that are at the higher end of the price range are capable of producing images with over 10 megapixels (comparable to a low-end DSLR camera) and a high light-sensitivity of up to 6,400 ISO (which is supported by its own image processor). These cameras are also capable of producing good photos in poor lighting conditions and without the use of a flash. An image stabiliser helps combat blurriness in the photos and is integrated in most models currently being manufactured. Many models also come equipped with an electronic viewfinder, or live viewfinder (LVF). The photo about to be taken is depicted on an LCD display, which is very often also capable of supporting recording HD movies.

Overall, compact cameras just can’t really keep up with the high quality optical systems and numerous features offered in DSLR or system cameras. On the other hand, however, they are also substantially more expensive, bigger, and heavier. Thus, a compact camera is still a favourable choice for the beginning photographer since the limited manual setting possibilities and the slightly lower picture quality are sufficient enough to meet their needs. Their ease of use doesn’t require any prior knowledge of photography and is perfect for taking pictures on holidays, at parties, or of family outings.

Compact cameras with their fixed focal lengths restrict the different possible image compositions significantly. Therefore, when purchasing your camera you should consider your own personal preferences, decide if you would rather wide-angle or telephoto capabilities, and of course the optical zoom. Besides the optical zoom, compact cameras also come equipped with a digital zoom. When using this, however, only the central portion of the image is enlarged and some image details will be lost. Thus, photos taken using a digital zoom have a slightly poorer image quality.

Analogue Cameras

Due to new advancements in photography technology, the term analogue camera has gained more popularity since the beginning of the 21st century to differentiate itself from the digital camera.

In this tried and tested method of photographing, a chemical recording medium is necessary. This medium can be negative film, slides, or photographic plates. When light hits the light-sensitive surface of the film, a chemical reaction causes the photograph to receive its colour. It’s possible to view and duplicate the image only after it has first been developed. Subsequent photo editing or optimisation is therefore only possible with laborious retouching done in a photo lab.

When the exposure of the recording medium through the optical system of the camera occurs, the image information is only in physical and analogue-measurable signals. Only when the chemical reaction takes place on the recording medium is this image information fixed and “saved.” With the help of a second chemical process in the photo lab, a photo can be produced on special paper, which is also possible to duplicate.

Analogue techniques in other areas also find fewer and fewer applications nowadays due to their susceptibility to flaws in the quality of the information stored. For example, audio cassettes with their sensitive magnetic tape (that can produce unpleasant noises when not handled properly) have quickly been replaced by CD’s and USB sticks.

An analogue camera does, however, still have some advantages over its digital counterpart. For example, analogue cameras are much less susceptible to dust. Image sensors in digital cameras, on the other hand, require laborious and expensive cleaning if they come into contact with dust and other contaminants, or the entire camera might have to be replaced. Furthermore, the film used in analogue cameras is more forgiving with incorrect exposures.

Leica and Voigtländer are two of the very few brands worldwide that still manufacture analogue cameras today. Digital photography dominates the market share and has pushed down sales figures of analogue cameras to a low albeit stable level. There’s also still a niche market for both the film necessary for analogue photography as well as its development. Many professional photographers and artists continue to use the classic techniques of analogue photography as well as develop their own photos. Analogue instant cameras are also sometimes used to give the image a bit more of a special effect.

DSLR

The abbreviation DSLR stands for digital single-lens reflex and describes a camera that uses alternating mirrors that are located between the lens and the image plane. This reflects the light that is gathered through the lens and projects it inverted on the dial. With the help of a converging lens and the prism viewfinder, the image appears true sided in the viewfinder. When the shutter button is pressed, the mirror flips up and the image reaches the image sensor. The much larger image sensor (in comparison to sensors in compact cameras) makes taking high quality photos possible despite difficult photographing conditions and reduces image errors like image noise.

DSLR cameras offer a countless number of settings for special effects and a high image quality. Thanks to autofocus and other various automatic functions, they can also be operated without having a lot of knowledge about photography. However, due to their size, weight, and, last but not least, their higher price tag, they’re less suitable for just taking the occasional snapshot.

Although a DSLR camera responds quicker than compact cameras, only a relatively low sequence of images can be taken due to the camera’s trigger mechanics. Specially constructed cameras, like the Canon Pellix, make a faster shutter release possible. Here, a fixed mirror or prism is used instead of an alternating mirror, which is partially transparent and reduces the delay between pressing the shutter release and the exposure. Since the light is divided, a darker image is transmitted to the viewfinder and thus less light is transmitted to the image sensor.

The analogue single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, which is the now rarely-used predecessor of the DSLR camera, functions very similarly mechanically, but uses film instead of an image sensor. This of course required a very time-consuming development of the pictures, which naturally isn’t necessary when using a DSLR camera. Another significant advantage of using a DSLR camera is the display, which makes it possible to view photos immediately after shooting and sort them when needed. One must keep in mind, however, that the photos are not displayed on the screen in their full quality and resolution. Therefore, photos that don’t have optimal lighting conditions or just don’t look right will often be first noticed on the computer or after development.

In order to avoid poor picture quality caused by faulty settings, many cameras offer over- and underexposure warnings that flash on the screen when detected. You can also use the help of a histogram displayed on the screen to graphically display the surrounding lightening conditions regardless of your camera’s display resolution capabilities.

Whether you choose to use a Nikon, Canon, Olympus, or a Sony camera: when deciding which brand of DSLR camera to purchase, it’s important to keep in mind that most brands utilise their own lenses and accessories. Therefore, you’re pretty much stuck to one brand once you’ve made your decision which manufacturer to go with. You can sometimes use adapter rings for a bayonet mount in order to use lenses from other manufacturers. When doing this, however, some automatic functions are either partially supported or not at all. Not all camera brands also manufacture their own bayonet mounts. Fujifilm, for instance, is licenced to use the F-bayonet mount developed by Nikon on their camera.

Digital Cameras

A camera that uses an image sensor and a digital storage medium instead of film is called a digital camera. By converting light signals into electrical signals, the image is digitalised and can be digitally stored and processed. The photos can also be transferred to other digital devices using the corresponding digital interface. This enables you to save and edit your photos on a computer as well as archive them.

Many settings for image processing and picture quality can be automatically set on digital cameras. For example, the auto focus can automatically adjust the sharpness and the optical filter automatically takes care of the corresponding colour filter and colour mosaics, which are usually integrated into the image sensor.

The first milestone in the history of the digital camera was set by David Paul Gregg in 1963 with the invention of the “Videodisk.” This device was capable of storing images for only a couple of minutes electrically analogous on a videodisk and was thus the first camera capable of electronically storing photographic information.

Most digital cameras nowadays are also capable of recording video sequences. These, however, require a high image refresh rate, which usually causes the resolution to be much lower than in still images. The development of special video cameras that were based on their own technology, therefore, took place parallel to the development of the digital camera.

In subsequent years, the technical development of the first image sensors and light-sensitive chips progressed rapidly. The successful technical breakthrough came in 1969 when physicists Willard Boyle and George Smith created the charge-coupled device (CCD). This light-sensitive chip was originally developed as a storage medium and made it possible to store images for a brief period of time. It was first used in an electric analogue video camera in 1970 and is still one of the most common image sensors used today next to the CMOS sensor. Well-known companies like Canon, Kodak, and Olympus manufacture their cameras with CCD sensors.

In the early 1990’s, digital cameras were mainly used by professional photographers. An example of this can be found in newspaper journalism since digital photography made it possible to quickly transmit images.

Only near the end of the 90’s did digital cameras become more popular for personal use. The first mass-produced digital cameras for personal use were manufactured by Apple, Casio, Kodak, Sony, and Canon. The first DSLR camera was produced by Kyocera in 2002. Currently, there are a countless number of digital cameras available in all price ranges and configurations.

Due to the high speed of innovation in both computer technology and digital photography, the digital camera became an integral part of people’s lives. Sales of digital cameras for personal use especially took off. Due to rapidly falling prices, digital cameras have been producing much higher sales figures than analogue cameras since 2003. For this reason, most manufacturers have halted production of analogue cameras altogether.

Since 2000, digital cameras have been increasingly integrated into other devices. In the beginning, some modern phones were outfitted with a digital photo function. Nowadays, however, this function has become a standard and expected feature in all smartphones, tablets, and other digital devices.

A massive stone staircase in an old abandoned villa

Lost Places Photography – What You Should Keep in Mind

Motivation

Abandoned places are exciting locations for the urban explorer. Other common terms for urban exploration (also abbreviated as urbex or UE) include infiltration, draining, urban caving, urban spelunking, urban rock climbing, and building hacking. Urban explorers search for abandoned places and objects that are waiting to be rediscovered and try to capture the romantic and aesthetic atmosphere of their surroundings on camera. Many urban explorers are especially fascinated by the authenticity emitted from these lost places. These buildings reshaped by their decay are a stark contrast to the new modern buildings surrounding them. Thus, many lost places photographers find it liberating and relaxing to escape from civilisation for a bit.

Very frequently surreal motifs can be discovered amongst the overgrown walls and bizarre graffiti. Besides just the exploration of these urban relics, the main motivation of many urban explorers is to artistically capture these surreal surroundings on camera.

The American geographer and urban explorer Bradley L. Garret, currently living in the UK, theorised that urban exploration is a reaction to the growing surveillance and control experienced in public spaces.

Security

A massive stone staircase in an old abandoned villa

There are some basic rules of conduct you should observe when entering abandoned places to ensure your safety. First and foremost, you should never explore deserted places by yourself. It’s best to be accompanied by a knowledgeable person who lives in the area. For some lost places, there are even professional tours available, for example the famous Beelitz Heilstätten in Brandenburg (Germany).

A higher degree of alertness is imperative when you enter lost places. Hasty walking and careless actions can result in severe injury – especially if the building is in danger of collapsing. You should always keep an eye out for decaying floors and ceilings. Safety first! Some urban explorers even tell stories about how whole floors have collapsed while they were exploring. If you’re unsure about the stability of a floor you’re walking on of if the floorboards are creaking a bit too much, it’s best to be safe and just go back.

Legality

A fence with a sign warning people that trespassing is forbidden.

Entering private property without permission is usually trespassing. In English law, trespassing to land is defined as the “unjustifiable interference with land which is in the immediate and exclusive possession of another.” The maximum penalty for the offence is a term of not more than 51 weeks imprisonment or a fine of up to £5,000 (or both).

Many urban explorers enter abandoned sites without the required permission and are thus trespassing, strictly speaking. The owners of these buildings are sometimes very difficult to find or have very little understanding of the hobby of urban exploring. The urban explorer, however, is not trespassing in order to deface the property, steal things, or to cause other damages. They’re only there to be able to do their hobby, namely exploring and photographing these special locations.

Unwritten Rules

An old deteriorating sofa in an abandoned house

While going urban exploring, there’s an unwritten rule: take nothing but pictures – leave nothing but footprints! Every serious urban explorer adheres to this unwritten rule. Unfortunately, not only urban explorers enter these abandoned places, but also sometimes hooligans and violent individuals. They destroy the interior and leave behind heaps of rubbish. Urban explorers can’t stand this. All they want is to explore and photograph places that have been under the sole influence of nature for past decades.

The urban exploration scene abhors people who just enter these abandoned places and buildings to steal. It happens again and again that people like copper thieves gain access to unguarded industrial areas, old villas, and other ruins to tear down the walls and steal copper wiring. They then turn around and sell the copper for a profit.

ISO value shown on the display of a DSLR camera

ISO Explained in Detail – the Light Sensitivity of Cameras

Everyone’s heard of it, yet its exact meaning is not as well known: ISO values. Besides the aperture and exposure time of a camera, the ISO value plays a very important role in both analogue and digital photography.

Even in the days of analogue photography, ISO values were of great importance. In this case, the ISO value stands for film speed and indicates how sensitive the film is to light, that is to say, the ISO value tells the photographer how much light they will need when photographing. Thus, in these times, the photographer had to have a good idea about what kind of lighting conditions were going to be present during the shoot, because changing out film in the middle of a shoot could be quite arduous.

Things have been made much easier with digital cameras. Here, the ISO setting indicator shows the photographer how light-sensitive the image sensor is. The ISO value can be changed in the settings menu and can always be changed instantly to adapt to changing lighting conditions. Also, many digicams offer the option of using an automatic ISO setting. When this setting is used, the camera automatically tries to use the most optimal ISO setting for each picture.

The abbreviation ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization and is an international standard-setting body made up of numerous national standards organizations. Before its founding, national abbreviations were used to describe film speed. A couple of examples of these were the DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung / German Institute for Standardization) and the ASA (American Standards Association). Nowadays, only the ISO value is indicated.

Using the Right ISO Value

By default most cameras use an ISO value between 100 and 200. These values indicate a lower light sensitivity and are most suitable to use when there is a good amount of light available when photographing. Setting the ISO value becomes a bit more difficult when the lighting conditions are not that optimal. If you still want to use an ISO value of 100 in this case, you’ll have to either open the aperture more or increase the exposure time. If you increase the exposure time and don’t use a tripod, however, you can quickly end up with blurry photos.

In order to combat camera shake, you can also raise the ISO value on your camera to increase the light sensitivity of the image sensor. When doing this, you’re basically “tricking” the sensor into thinking the motif is brighter than it actually is. So, you’ll need less light to take a decent photo. When altering the ISO value setting, the shutter speed is also affected. When changing the ISO value from 100 to 200, the exposure time is halved. Thus, if the shutter speed beforehand was 1/125, it would now be 1/250.

Camera manufacturers give different recommendations for using various ISO settings in different kinds of lighting conditions. Basically, one can assume that the values between 100 and 200 are suitable for taking pictures in well-lit surroundings. In cloudier conditions, an ISO value between 400 and 800 is more suitable. When photographing at night or in very dark rooms, an ISO setting of 800+ should be used. These guidelines are especially helpful when you can’t use a flash when photographing, such as at a concert or in a poorly-lit museum.

A Drawback of Using a Higher ISO Value – Image Noise

You might think that using a higher ISO value is the solution for all of your lighting problems. However, there’s a catch. The higher the ISO value is, the greater the likelihood that image noise will appear in your photos. Especially inexpensive camera models will begin producing unusable results when the ISO value is set at 400 or higher.

The reason for this so-called image noise appearing is the interference experienced by the image sensor. When raising the ISO value, the sensitivity of the image sensor also rises. This also increases the possibility of interference. The higher the ISO value is, the more visible this image noise will appear in your photo in the form of colour and brightness discrepancies. These white or colour faulty pixels are primarily visible in darker sections of your photo.

If some image noise is visible in your photo, this can be partially fixed retrospectively with special programs. Paid software like Photo Ninja or Neat Image allow you to edit your data in RAW format. In order to do this, of course, your camera has to be capable of producing images saved in RAW format. One must keep in mind, however, that the image noise that appears in your photo can never be completely eliminated.

Go Easy on the ISO

As we’ve already described, high ISO values can lead to unwanted image noise in your photos. The lower the selected ISO setting is, the clearer your photos will appear. When using an ISO value of 50, the image noise isn’t visible. For this reason you should be careful when you decide to adjust the ISO value on your camera.

You can also regulate the amount of light the image sensor receives by adjusting the aperture and exposure time. You can also adjust these values and use a tripod. If you don’t have a tripod available, you can use a wall or solid structure to stabilise yourself when photographing. This can help prevent unwanted camera shake.

A camera tripod and good lighting conditions make using high ISO values unnecessary